Parts of Speech

part of speech
variables
functions

noun (gender is fixed)
word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea

number
case

case reflects function: subject, direct object, indirect object, obj. of prep., predicate nominative, etc.

adjective
modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words

number
gender
case

modifies expressed or implied (substantive adj.) noun, with which it agrees in no., gender, case

verb (finite)
asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being

person
number
tense
mood
voice

main verb of its clause

verb (infinitive)
"to" plus basic form of verb

tense
voice

complimentary; verb of indirect statement

adverb
indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much"

none

modifies, verb, adjective, another adverb. phrase, or clause

preposition
links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition

none

introduces prepositional phrase; takes object in accusative or ablative

participle

number
gender
case

tense
voice

modifies expressed or implied noun, with which it agrees in number, gender, case; may take its own objects

HyperGrammar (Univ. of Ottowa)